Lorentz selection from heat and thermodynamics book. The wiedemannfranz law is a consequence of the fact that electrons in a metal carry both charge and heat. The exact expressions for the transport coefficients of a metal are used to show that the wiedemannfranz law is valid provided that a the electrons do not interact with each other and form a degenerate fermidirac assembly, b the scattering of the electrons is due to impurities or lattice vibrations and is elastic. Widemann franz law and limitations of free electron theory. Wiedemannfranz law definition is a statement in physics. Gross violation of the wiedemannfranz law in a quasione. It was discovered in the year 1835 and named after german physicists, gustav wiedemann and rudolph franz.
It turns out, however, that this qualitative agreement with experiment is due to a cancellation. Perhaps the most striking realization of this onetoone correspondence is the validity of the wiedemannfranz wf law in almost all known theoretical1,2,3,4 and. Electronic thermal conductivity and the wiedemannfranz law for. The temperature dependences for solid tin and lead are in good agreement with those estimated from the wiedemannfranz law using electrical conductivity values. Equation is the wf law in 3d for parabolic energy bands, energy. Here kc is the thermal conductivity due to the conduction electrons. The nature of the electronic state of a metal depends strongly on its dimensionality.
Conductors classical free electron theory of metals electrical and thermal conductivity wiedemann franz law lorentz number draw backs of classical theory quantum theory fermi distribution function effect of temperature on fermi function density of energy states. As well as electric fields the electrons inside a metal will also react to an applied magnetic. Calculate the thermal conductivity based on wiedemann. Please attempt question a4 and from prof robin nicholass problem set. It is the degree measure of capacity of a material to conduct electricity. Gross violation of the wiedemannfranz law in a quasionedimensional conductor. Wiedemannfranz law is the law which relates the thermal conductivity. According to widemann and franz law the ratio of thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity is directly proportional to temperature. Lorenz that this constant is proportional to the temperature. Using the schwingerkeldysh formalism, we calculate all transp ort coe. Wiedemann franz law states that the ratio of the thermal conductivity k to the electrical conductivity. Wiedemannfranz law is the law which relates the thermal. Failure of the wiedemannfranz law in mesoscopic conductors maxim g.
The wiedemannfranz law describes the relationship between the electrical conductivity and the electrical component of the thermal conductivity of a metal. Ii we derive an equation for the thermal conductivity of a fermi liquid. In physics, the wiedemannfranz law states that the ratio of the electronic contribution of the. The example of diamond which is not a metal and hence the wiedemannfranz law is not expected to hold, however, shows that the lattice contribution can have the same order of magnitude as the electronic contribution, since diamond has comparable heat conductivity metals at room temperature. Hence explain at which temperatures you expect the wiedemannfranz law to hold. While the wiedemannfranz law is known to be robust for many bulk materials, possible violations have been actively discussed for certain classes of bulk materials such as heavy fermion materials. This law states that the ratio of the electronic contribution of the thermal conductivity k to. This is a book which covers the topic of solid state physics comprehensively. The wiedemannfranz law describes the relationship between the electrical. Here, an equivalent wf relationship is developed for molecular systems in which charge carriers are moving not as free. However, the verification of the wiedemannfranz law in these nanostructures remains hotly debated. The wiedemannfranz law the ratio of the thermal conductivity to the electrical conductivity of a metal is proportional to the temperature. Wiedemann franz law and its derivation winner science. This empirical law is named after gustav wiedemann and rudolph franz, who in.
Pdf revisiting wiedemannfranz law through boltzmann. The law states that the ratio of electronic contribution of the thermal conductivity \left \kappa \right to the electrical conductivity \left \sigma \right of a metal is. The attorneys in the firm have not lost sight, however, of the fact that behind each case, there is an individual with human needs that are critically affected by the outcome of. The mesoscopic violation of the weidemannfranz law is even more pronounced in a ring geometry, for which lorenz number exhibits he fluxperiodic aharonovbohm oscillations. Pdf we have investigated structural, electronic and transport properties of the alkali metals using abinitio density functional theory. At a given temperature, the thermal and electrical conductivities of metals are proportional, but raising the temperature increases the thermal conductivity while decreasing the electrical conductivity. Comparatively, according to the results obtained from the 4p configuration, the wiedemannfranz law is generally valid particular for the long sample when the end effect in determining the thermal conductivity can be diminished, as shown in fig. Classical free electron theory expression for electrical conductivity thermal conductivity, wiedemann franz law electrons in metals. Drude theory of conduction basics of free electron theory. Please note, i think the discussion in hook and hall is very unsatisfactory here try and think through the problem yourself, and then decide on which you think is the better explanation. The exact expressions for the transport coefficients of a metal are used to show that the wiedemann franz law is valid provided that a the electrons do not interact with each other and form a degenerate fermidirac assembly, b the scattering of the electrons is due to impurities or lattice vibrations and is elastic. Wiedemann franz law and wiedemann franz law limitations. Engineering physics 2 ph6251 semester 2 regulation 20. Gustav wiedemann discovered that thermal conductivity \\left \kappa \right \ and the electrical conductivity \\left \sigma \right \ are approximately have same value.
The wiedemannfranz law link between thermal and electrical conductivity wiedemann and franz found in 1853 that the ratio of thermal and electrical conductivity for all metlals is constant at a given temperature for room temperature and above. Wiedemannfranz wf law is frequently used to esti mate the phonon contribution to. At low temperatures, the electron mean free path mfp increases remarkably and the grain boundary scattering becomes dominant, the wf law should be reconsidered. Ph6251 conductors classical free electron theory of metals electrical and thermal conductivity wiedemann franz law lorentz number draw backs of classical theory quantum theory fermi distribution function effect of temperature on fermi function density of energy states carrier concentration in metals. Detailed derivation of the molecular wiedemannfranz law and more information about the conductance calculations in the molecular junction model pdf. Thermal conductivity and the wiedemannfranz law hyperphysics. Wiedemannfranz law for hot qcd matter in color string percolation scenario pragati sahoo and raghunath sahooy discipline of physics, school of basic sciences, indian institute of technology indore, indore 453552, india swatantra kumar tiwariz department of applied science and humanities, muza arpur institute of technology, muza arpur 842003.
Wiedemannfranz law an empirical law of physics which states that the ratio of the thermal conductivity of a metal to its electrical conductivity is a constant times the absolute temperature, as given by the equation below. The flow of heat will result in the direction opposite to the temperature gradient through the conducting medium. Our results prove that the wiedemannfranz law as derived for free. It quantifies the idea that metals that are good electrical conductors are also good thermal conductors. Ph8254 syllabus physics of materials regulation 2017 anna. Therefore, we propose here a systematic way to elucidate the. Historically, the wiedemannfranz law states that for metals at not too low. This number matches the one found experimentally a lot better than before.
Minimizing the thermal conductivity for negative values of produces the characteristic equation in 27. The thermal conductivities of liquid tin displayed a value of 25. The second chapter also includes a discussion of hookes law, plastic flow, dislocations, elasticity etc. The wiedemann franz law the ratio of the thermal conductivity to the electrical conductivity of a metal is proportional to the temperature. Engineering physics ii unit 1 conducting materials. In a system of isolated conducting chains, the fermiliquid quasiparticle description appropriate for higher. Wiedemannfranz law article about wiedemannfranz law by. Pdf advances in optimizing thermoelectric material efficiency have seen a parallel activity in theoretical. Qualitatively, this relationship is based upon the fact that the heat and electrical transport both involve the free electrons in the metal. The derivation is valid no matter how strong the scattering and it is. Wiedemannfranzlorenz law article about wiedemannfranz. L x t this law is named after gustav wiedemann and rudolph franz, who in 1853 reported that k. The wiedemannfranz law is one of the fundamental law in physics.
The law states that the ratio of electronic contribution of the thermal conductivity \ left \kappa \right to the electrical conductivity \left \sigma \right of a metal is. The wiedemann franz law states that, the ratio of the electronic contribution of the thermal conductivity. Wiedemann franz law and its derivation assume that a homogeneous isotropic material is subjected to a temperature gradient dtdx. This behavior is quantified in the wiedemannfranz law. Failure of the wiedemannfranz law in mesoscopic conductors. It is derived from the predominant transport mechanism in metals.
Introduction he purpose of this paper is to present a new derivation of the law of t wiedemann and franz wiedemann and franz 1853, wilson 1953. The derivation is valid no matter how strong the scattering and it is therefore more general than the usual weakcoupling derivation of the wiedemann franz law. Starting from the structure of matter and various types of bonds in the first chapter the mechanical properties are treated in the second chapter. Let us examine the theory of stationary temperature jumps. For the past 150plus years, the wiedemannfranz law has proved to be remarkably robust, the ratio varying at most by around 50 per cent amongst the thousands of metallic systems studied. Wiedemannfranz law definition of wiedemannfranz law by. At nanoscale on the other hand the limits of the wiedemannfranz law and how to probe and control them remains an open question. Given the following experimental data at 20c for pure metals, compute the corresponding values of the lorenz number, l, defined in eq. The wiedemannfranz wf law is a fundamental result in solidstate physics that relates the thermal and electrical conductivity of a metal. Effect of electrical contact resistance on measurement of. Pdf an analytic study of the wiedemannfranz law and the. Douglas stone department of applied physics, yale university, new haven, connecticut 06520, usa received 14 september 2005. If any questions please contact me whatsap number 9416939577.
In physics, the wiedemann franz law states that the ratio of the electronic contribution of the thermal conductivity. As a result, we can safely draw a conclusion that the wiedemannfranz law holds for the. It is the degree measure of capacity of a material to conduct heat. When we put equation 11 in 10, we get electrical conductivity drude conductivity as. Ph6152 engineering physics ii,books, lecture notes. Classical free electron theory expression for electrical conductivity thermal conductivity, wiedemannfranz law electrons in metals. We will assume that at the boundaries of the temperature jump there are no fluxes of ions or electrons, and that electric currents and macroscopic electric fields are absent. The lorenz number obtained from the twoprobe measurement is. For an ideal gas the heat transfer rate is proportional to the average molecular velocity, the mean free path, and the molar heat capacity of the gas. Wiedemannfranz law for molecular hopping transport nano. In this calculator, you can calculate the thermal conductivity of a free electrons in solid semiconductor material based on temperature.
Wiedemannfranz law states that the ratio of the thermal conductivity k to the electrical conductivity. It states that a metals thermal conductivity math\kappamath is proportional to its electrical conductivity math\sigmamath wi. Breakdown of wiedemannfranz law in individual suspended polycrystalline gold nanofilms down to 3 k. For the freeelectron model, the electrical and thermal conductivities are. What is the significance of the wiedemannfranz law. Theoretically, the proportionality constant l, known as the lorenz number, is equal to. What is wiedemannfranz law lorenz number definition. How to probe the limits of the wiedemannfranz law at. The wf law forms the basis for analyzing the conductivity of myriad systems and materials in which the dominant energy transport mechanism is the nearly free motion. The supporting information is available free of charge at. Wiedemannfranz law for hot qcd matter in color string. This file is licensed under the creative commons attributionshare alike 4.1531 1421 126 1332 416 610 204 109 1227 192 175 894 219 1492 1227 772 1495 378 595 868 687 348 248 1208 1252 482 824 50 559 1112 753 1476 828 1271 1330 1337 717 757